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Welcome to the Medical Science Review

Medical Science Review (MSR) has developed as an independent title in 2014 as a continuation of highly successful Review Section of the Medical Science Monitor (since 1995). The aim of the Journal is to gather review articles across all medical disciplines, thereby integrating international medical knowledge. Medical Science Review has adopted the Open Access publishing model which enables free access... read more


Published: 2015-07-04

Citicoline: A Food That May Improve Memory

Paweł Grieb

(Department of Experimental Pharmacology, Mossakowski Medical Research Centre, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Poland)

Med Sci Rev 2015; 2:67-72

DOI: 10.12659/MSRev.894711


ABSTRACT: Attempts to improve memory function with drugs affecting the brain have given unimpressive results. Dietary supplements are more widely available, and there also has been little evidence of their positive effect on memory. Citicoline may be a valuable exception. In several countries it has been registered as a nootropic drug for decades, but recently it did not prove effective in treatment of acute ischemic strokes and brain injuries. In the USA, citicoline attained the status of “generally recognized as safe”, and in the European Union recently it was qualified as a “novel food”. Small randomized, placebo-controlled trials involving healthy volunteers revealed that permissible doses of this novel food produce positive effects in the human brain recognized electrophysiologically, neurochemically, and functionally. Citicoline supplementation may be useful for subjects with memory disorders of mild-to-moderate intensity, those undergoing neurorehabilitation following brain strokes, and for healthy subjects facing requirements for enhanced attention and mental effort.

Keywords: Dietary Supplements, Memory Disorders, Nootropic Agents




Published: 2015-06-30

Ethics Teaching Rounds: A Paradigm for all Teaching Hospitals


Peter A. Clark, Rajiv Bhattarai, David W. Temme, Jr

Med Sci Rev 2015; 2:55-66

DOI: 10.12659/MSRev.894709

Published: 2015-06-05

Edoxaban: A Review of a Promising New Oral Factor Xa Inhibitor in Non-Valvular Atrial Fibrillation


Mohamed Teleb, Miraie Wardi, Maryna Popp, Komola Azimova, Hasan J. Salameh, Sarmad Said

Med Sci Rev 2015; 2:49-54

DOI: 10.12659/MSRev.894613